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Hence, it seems reasonable to assume that the K-TUT could be successfully administered in a clinic setting or distributed by mail.

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There are inherent limitations to measuring disease state knowledge as an outcome. It is important to note that disease state knowledge does not directly translate into behavior change, self-efficacy, or adherence. However, measuring patient knowledge may help to characterize these elusive, yet important concepts. Given the importance of education in the field of transplantation, educational research should be commended and encouraged.

The influence of education on transplant outcomes cannot be properly explored, however, until we have accurate way to measure its effect. To perform sound, scientific research and produce trustworthy results, the measurement tool must be proven to be reliable. Using a flawed questionnaire in the world of behavioural science could be considered analogous to using a miscalibrated scientific instrument in a laboratory.

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In order for educational research to be respected, it should be held to the same rigorous standards as other research. Developing a validated tool to measure transplant knowledge is a first step in this process. In addition to research, a validated tool to assess transplant knowledge could be an important resource in the clinical setting. Health care providers, such as nurses, physicians, or pharmacists, could use the tool in the pretransplant setting to identify areas of patient confusion.

Targeted education could then be applied accordingly. Likewise, the tool could be used in the posttransplant setting to identify misconceptions about required medications and lifestyle changes.

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There are limitations to this study that deserve acknowledgement. We had identified one of the potential uses of the questionnaire to be identifying gaps in patient knowledge for instance so that health care providers can tailor patient education. As such, we wanted to ensure that the instrument was comprehensive and did not use item reduction to minimize the number of questions. A questionnaire that takes too much time to complete may promote user fatigue and missing data, and be challenging to use in a busy clinic setting. It is encouraging, however, that the majority of respondents believed that no questions should be removed from the instrument.

Because a tool that could measure knowledge across the continuum of care would be extremely beneficial in the research setting, we opted to include content that was applicable to both transplant candidates and transplant recipients. In doing so, however, we omitted some specific aspects of knowledge that our focus group 18 identified as relevant in the before transplant such as information about the surgical procedure. The questionnaire was developed and studied in a single center in Canada, and particularly high levels of health literacy were noted in the pretransplant group.

Although every effort was made to keep the items general and widely applicable to other populations and patients with low health literacy, the validity of this instrument should be confirmed in other settings. Furthermore, this finding should be confirmed in a cohort of posttransplant recipients. The process of establishing the validity of a questionnaire is lengthy.

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The Critical Need for Understanding the Complexities of Chronic Kidney Disease

We have developed a questionnaire to measure transplant disease state knowledge and have undertaken several steps to examine its validity. Although more study is warranted to further assess psychometric properties such as interpretability, and responsiveness , the K-TUT appears to be a promising tool to measure transplant knowledge.

The authors would like to thank the research assistants Shirin Aladwan, Carrie Larson, and Carrie Nagel for their help with the study, as well as Jacey Jones for participating in the questionnaire development process. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent.

For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy. Subscribe to eTOC. Advanced Search. Toggle navigation. Register Login. Your Name: optional. Your Email:. Colleague's Email:. Separate multiple e-mails with a ;. Thought you might appreciate this item s I saw at Transplantation Direct. Send a copy to your email. Some error has occurred while processing your request. Please try after some time. Published online 8 February, Received 9 November Revision requested 8 December Accepted 15 December The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Back to Top Article Outline. TABLE 1. TABLE 2. TABLE 3. TABLE 4. Accessed January 10th Cited Here Impact of renal cadaveric transplantation on survival in end-stage renal failure: evidence for reduced mortality risk compared with hemodialysis during long-term follow-up. J Am Soc Nephrol. Comparative mortality risks of chronic dialysis and cadaveric transplantation in black end-stage renal disease patients. Am J Kidney Dis. PubMed CrossRef. Quality of life in patients undergoing hemodialysis and renal transplantation—a meta-analytic review.

Nephrol Nurs J. View Full Text PubMed. Disparities in provision of transplant information affect access to kidney transplantation. Am J Transplant. Impact of a patient education program on disparities in kidney transplant evaluation.


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