His achievements made significant contributions to the understanding of interactions between landscape pattern and ecological processes, land use change and ecological effects, and ecosystem services assessment and management. Markku Kulmala University of Helsinki, Finland. The aim of the study is to find the mechanisms that are associated with the formation of atmospheric aerosol particles, and atmosphere-biosphere interactions and feedbacks.
Kulmala has been the author of more than articles in scientific journals. Kulmala has chaired the international iLEAPS research project on the global atmosphere and global change. With a PhD in Ecology and Environmental Sciences, and many years of undertaking applied research, Berta focuses her research on understanding the dynamics of social-ecological systems. Her research has been applied at different spatial scales, from local to global, and in different systems i.
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Project TRUE near-peer, relational mentoring model. Arrows represent the bi-directional nature of relational mentoring and the length of the arrows represents the intensity of the mentoring relationship, with shorter lines representing increased primacy of the mentor—mentee relationship in the model. All participants interact with each other, creating a mentoring ecosystem. Principal investigators PI primarily mentor conservation educators E and graduate students G and to a lesser extent undergraduates U.
Pre-college students H are primarily mentored by undergraduates with assistance from conservation educators and graduate students. Project TRUE research projects follow a guided-inquiry approach Lewis and Lewis to give participants ownership over their research. The summer program is split into two parts: a 4-week undergraduate training session during the month of June, and a 7-week research session that includes the pre-college students during July and August. Prior to the summer, principal investigators assign project leaders a broad research topic Fig.
Does species composition differ between two urban parks? During the 4-week training session, project leaders assist each undergraduate in identifying a sub-question nested within the broader research topic assigned to each team Fig.
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These sub-questions typically focus on a single taxonomic group e. During this process, project leaders and principal investigators train and mentor undergraduates, with a focus on both research and mentoring skills. Mentoring training uses a modified curriculum originally developed by the National Research Mentoring Network that emphasizes the development of a personalized mentoring philosophy. In July, pre-college students begin the 7-week summer program.
Pre-college student research projects tend to focus on the relationship between aspects of urbanization and measures of species composition and ecosystem quality e. The undergraduate mentors use a guided-inquiry approach to emphasize the process of science and to help the pre-college students develop research questions, methods and analysis plans. At the completion of the 7-week summer program, each team of pre-college students produces a conference-quality research poster to present at a public symposium. To study the effects of Project TRUE on pre-college students, an independent research team administered pre- and post-surveys at the beginning and end of the summer program to determine changes, if any, in academic or career intentions.
These changes include added interest e. Of the 66 students that intended to pursue a Project TRUE-related major or career, 31 reported that they had not intended to pursue such a pathway prior to participating in Project TRUE.
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Moreover, about 1 in 4 students changed their intention toward the pursuit of a Project TRUE-related major after participating in the program. For example, respondents reported a mean influence of 6. Similarly, respondents reported a mean influence of 6. These results indicate that pre-college students perceived that they gained a broader understanding of possible science and science-related careers, and gained confidence in their abilities to pursue such careers.
However, knowledge and skills may be less important compared with science identity in predicting science career outcomes, especially for URM who face unique challenges in predominately white settings Cookson and Persell ; Nora and Cabrera ; Johnsrud and Sadao Pre-college student experiences of Project TRUE are, in part, dependent upon their near-peer undergraduate mentors.
This suggests that the mentor relationship may be an important mediator of short-term effects on science identity in pre-college research mentoring programs. While pro-environmental attitudes are influenced by a suite of factors Gifford and Nilsson , these results suggest that spending time conducting ecological research in urban parks and natural spaces can influence pro-environmental attitudes. These data will be incorporated into subsequent analyses of data that are collected from yearly follow-up surveys aimed at providing greater detail on the sustained effects of Project TRUE on career trajectory.
Broadening participation is critical for developing a socially just, objective and talented community of scientists and ecologists that will be able to address pressing global challenges in an urban future. Pathways to science-related careers begin long before college and are often built by meaningful experiences and exposure to role models that shape identity over time. We assert that purposeful interventions that create pathways to science careers for URM before college are essential for broadening participation.
Pre-college urban ecology research mentoring programs may be a particularly inclusive and meaningful intervention in cities because they provide students with place-based and relational experiences that strengthen science identity and interest in science careers at a key decision point in their academic and career trajectory. We thank the participants of the Project TRUE program, especially the high school students, project leaders, undergraduate students and program assistants.
We also thank the anonymous reviewer for thoughtful feedback on this manuscript. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
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Why pre-college? Why urban ecology? Why mentoring?
Project TRUE: utilizing near-peer research mentoring in an urban environment. Data acceptability. Pre-college urban ecology research mentoring: promoting broader participation in the field of ecology for an urban future Jason M Aloisio. Corresponding author. E-mail: jaloisio wcs. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Brian Johnson. James D Lewis. J Alan Clark. Jason Munshi-South.
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Su-Jen Roberts. Deborah Wasserman. Joseph Heimlich. Karen Tingley. Cite Citation. Abstract The field of ecology is poised to substantially contribute to the creation of a socially and environmentally equitable urban future.
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