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While Bsal has yet to make an appearance in North America, it has wreaked havoc on salamander populations in Europe, and biologists worry its impact in the U. Researchers worry that not only would the newts themselves face massive die-offs, but also they could quickly spread the disease to other salamander species. The current United Nations carbon accounting system follows that guidance.

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However, new science has found the hypothesis to be wrong: bioenergy has been found to add significantly to carbon emissions. Tropical nations like Brazil and Peru are eager to jump on the bioenergy bandwagon, a potential disaster for rainforests and biodiversity. Still, wildlife experts spared no effort to investigate every scrap of information.

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The first rhino, however, died of injuries sustained before its capture. The views expressed are those of the author, not necessarily Mongabay. Even more luckily, a couple of those beachgoers had the presence of mind to report it to a hour marine wildlife rescue hotline.

This suggests that the Amazon rainforest may struggle to adapt, and keep up with, ongoing, escalating shifts in climate. If the Amazon is to adapt to rapid climatic shifts, then forest fragmentation must be limited to allow species movement. However, croplands and pastures are shattering habitat connectivity, especially in the southern Amazon.

The researchers also used a net to collect some animals from the seamounts for identification, many of which are potentially new to science. Christmas ad conundrum: Is a palm oil boycott the way to save apes? Instead, they urge concerned consumers to pressure the industry to clean up its practices.

In the Arctic, which migratory shorebirds are used to using as something of a refuge, rates of daily nest predation have tripled. They also can improve modeling and mapping work conducted by researchers and play an increasing prominent role in building environmental databases. Jaguar protection plan signed by 14 Latin countries Fourteen countries launched a plan to secure […]. The findings from multiple sites suggest that shoreline development negatively affects the abundance and distribution of various marine species.

COP Will they stay or will they go? During the campaign, he threatened to withdraw from the Paris Climate Agreement, implement extreme environmental deregulation policies, and introduce mining into Amazon indigenous reserves, while also using incendiary language which may be inciting violence in remote rural areas. Smith, A. The interactive effects of climate change and invasive alien species IAS pose serious threats to biodiversity, ecosystems and human well-being worldwide. In particular, IAS are predicted to experience widespread changes in distribution in response to climate change, with many expanding their ranges into new areas.

Newsletters 2018-12-20

However, the two drivers of global change are seldom considered together in policy and management. We conducted a knowledge synthesis to assess the state of research on IAS range shifts under climate change in Canada. We found that the study of IAS distribution changes caused by climate change is a relatively new field of inquiry that integrates research in the areas of ecology, conservation biology, and environmental sciences. The multidisciplinary dimensions of the issue are largely overlooked in the scholarly literature, with most studies having a purely natural science perspective.

Very little original research has occurred in the field to date; instead literature reviews are common. Research focuses on modeling range changes of current IAS threats, rather than predicting potential future IAS threats. The most commonly studied IAS already occur in Canada as native species that have spread beyond their range e. All of these IAS are expected to expand northward with climate change, resulting in widespread negative impacts on forest and freshwater biodiversity, carbon sequestration, and public health. Many barriers to predicting IAS range change under climate change are identified in the literature, including the complexity of the issue, lack of ecological data, and failure to integrate climate change - IAS interactions into research, policy, and management.

Recommendations for increased research and monitoring, and the need for policy and management reform predominate in the literature. International attention is focused on finding ways to reduce emissions from deforestation because of the emerging concerns over climate change. However the causes of deforestation are rooted in current economic and development paradigms.

Table of contents

The causes of deforestation also vary across different geographical regions and have implications for the forest transition. Attempts to reach an international agreement on curbing deforestation have achieved little success despite over 30 years of UN negotiations.

Hence, alternative development paths for forest cover changes and forest transition are analyzed for the REDD policy within the framework of an environmental Kuznets curve EKC for deforestation. The results also indicate that strengthening agricultural and forestry sector policies are important for curbing deforestation. Climate change could alter the biogeography of many tree species.

However, there have been few studies of tree growth across climatic gradients at a continental scale. We sampled cores from trees at 85 sites in biomes ranging from tropical savanna to arid desert and temperate forest, and measured widths of the outermost growth rings. We analysed ring width in relation to changes in tree age and diameter, and also evaluated the influence of the biogeographic factors on the width of the ten most recently formed rings.

The average width of outermost rings varied only slightly with stem diameter, because the decrease in ring width with age and diameter within trees is offset by an increase with diameter among trees. Our analyses thus explain the weak, inconsistent relationships often observed between stem diameter and growth rate amongst trees.

The most important biogeographic factors were the climatic ones: across Australia, ring width increased with both mean annual rainfall and mean annual temperature. These relationships were largely driven by continental scale differences between the tropical and the southern arid plus temperate sites, while relationships within climate zones were comparatively weak. Ring width decreased with intense inter-tree competition but showed little correlation with available soil nitrogen or phosphorus.

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Here, we assess endogenous and exogenous uncertainties using a model-data fusion framework benchmarked with an artificial neural network ANN. We used 18 years of eddy-covariance carbon flux data from the Harvard forest, where ecosystem carbon uptake has doubled over the measurement period, along with 15 ancillary ecological data sets relative to the carbon cycle.

We test the ability of combinations of diverse data to constrain projections of a process-based carbon cycle model, both against the measured decadal trend and under future long-term climate change. The use of high-frequency eddy-covariance data alone is shown to be insufficient to constrain model projections at the annual or longer time step. Future projections of carbon cycling under climate change in particular are shown to be highly dependent on the data used to constrain the model.

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Endogenous uncertainties in long-term model projections of future carbon stocks and fluxes were greatly reduced by the use of aggregated flux budgets in conjunction with ancillary data sets. The data-informed model, however, poorly reproduced interannual variability in net ecosystem carbon exchange and biomass increments and did not reproduce the long-term trend. Furthermore, we use the model-data fusion framework, and the ANN, to show that the long-term doubling of the rate of carbon uptake at Harvard forest cannot be explained by meteorological drivers, and is driven by changes during the growing season.

By integrating all available data with the model-data fusion framework, we show that the observed trend can only be reproduced with temporal changes in model parameters. Together, the results show that exogenous uncertainty dominates uncertainty in future projections from a data-informed process-based model. Premise of the study: Climate change may threaten endemic species with extinction, particularly relicts of the Arcto-Tertiary Forest, by elimination of their contemporary habitat. Projections of future habitat are necessary to plan for conservation of these species. We used three general circulation models and two sets of carbon emission scenarios optimistic and pessimistic for future climates.

Key results: Our procedures predicted present occurrence of Brewer spruce perfectly. For the decades , , and , its projected range within the Klamath Region progressively declined, to the point of disappearance in the decade The climate niche was projected to move north to British Columbia, the Yukon Territory, and southeastern Alaska. Conclusion: The results emphasize the necessity of assisted colonization and trans-boundary movement to prevent extinction of Brewer spruce.

The projections provide a framework for formulating conservation plans, but planners must also consider regulations regarding international plant transfers.

Volume 59 / Social Sciences

Afforestation has been proposed as a climate change mitigation strategy by sequestrating atmospheric carbon dioxide. With the goal of increasing carbon sequestration, a Congressional project has been planned to afforest about 18 million acres by in the Southeast United States SEUS , the Great Lake states, and the Corn Belt states. However, biophysical feedbacks of afforestation have the potential to counter the beneficial climatic consequences of carbon sequestration.

To assess the potential biophysical effects of afforestation over the SEUS, the authors designed a set of initial value ensemble experiments and long-term quasi-equilibrium experiments in a fully coupled Community Climate System Model, version 3. Model results show that afforestation over the SEUS not only has a local cooling effect in boreal summer [June-August JJA ] at short and long time scales but also induces remote warming over adjacent regions of the SEUS at long time scales.

Precipitation, in response to afforestation, increases over the SEUS local effect and decreases over adjacent regions remote effect in JJA. The local surface cooling and increase in precipitation over SEUS in JJA are hydrologically driven by the changes in evapotranspiration and latent heat flux. The remote surface warming and decrease in precipitation over adjacent regions are adiabatically induced by anomalous subsidence.

Our results suggest that the planned afforestation efforts should be developed carefully by taking account of short-term local and longterm remote biophysical effects of afforestation. This paper highlights World Bank's forest operations as its response to the Rio conventions, especially the climate convention and its subsequent agreements, though financial incentives at scale have yet to materialize. It is possible that anthropogenic climate change will drive the Earth system into a qualitatively different state 1.

Although different types of uncertainty limit our capacity to assess this risk 2 , Earth system scientists are particularly concerned about tipping elements, large-scale components of the Earth system that can be switched into qualitatively different states by small perturbations.