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The perceived remedies to these were seen as the creation of an international organization whose aim was to prevent future war through disarmament , open diplomacy, international co-operation, restrictions on the right to wage wars, and penalties that made war unattractive to nations. Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement in which all states cooperate collectively to provide security for all by the actions of all against any states within the groups which might challenge the existing order by using force. This contrasts with self-help strategies of engaging in war for purely immediate national interest.

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While collective security is possible, several prerequisites have to be met for it to work. Collective Security also contrasts with alliances in term of different forms. In Ph. D dissertation of Andreatta, collective security is based on the perspective of all together in a group against any one rather than on unilateral idea of some against specific others. Moreover, it is also different from alliance since collective security is built to focus on internal regulation required universal membership while alliance is built to deter or reduce an outside threat as an exclusive institution.

Arms, Alliances and Stability: The Development of the Structure of International Politics

For alliance, states would see their allies as absolute gain and their enemies as relative gains without legal obligation. In contrast, collective security follows the case of neutrality as the whole group would be required to punish the aggressor with the hope for it not to violate general norms, in which are beyond the states' control rather than by their self-interests. Opposite with short term interest of allies fighting for a common threat, collective security tends to use universal interests for global peace.

Sovereign nations eager to maintain the status quo, willingly cooperate, accepting a degree of vulnerability and in some cases of minor nations, also accede to the interests of the chief contributing nations organising the collective security. Collective Security is achieved by setting up an international cooperative organisation, under the auspices of international law and this gives rise to a form of international collective governance, albeit limited in scope and effectiveness.

The collective security organisation then becomes an arena for diplomacy, balance of power and exercise of soft power. The use of hard power by states, unless legitimised by the Collective Security organisation, is considered illegitimate, reprehensible and needing remediation of some kind.

The collective security organisation not only gives cheaper security, but also may be the only practicable means of security for smaller nations against more powerful threatening neighbours without the need of joining the camp of the nations balancing their neighbours. The concept of "collective security" forwarded by men such as Michael Joseph Savage , Martin Wight , Immanuel Kant , and Woodrow Wilson , are deemed to apply interests in security in a broad manner, to "avoid grouping powers into opposing camps, and refusing to draw dividing lines that would leave anyone out.

By employing a system of collective security, the UN hopes to dissuade any member state from acting in a manner likely to threaten peace, thereby avoiding any conflict. Collective security selectively incorporates the concept of both balance of power and global government. However, the term "Collective Security" is not the same as Balance of power, mentioned in Realism theory. According to Adreatta, balance of power focuses on state's unilateral interests stopping aggression. Since states look at the world as having security dilemma due to the fear of relative gain, state does not want any state to become predominant causing a mutually restraining equilibrium.

In other word, Balance of power between states opts for decentralization of power. States are separate actors who do not subordinate their autonomy or sovereignty to a central. Balance of power fails to maintain stability led to break down of war as in the case of Napoleonic Wars and World Wars when states unilaterally decided to be unwilling or unable to fight. At the same time, the concept of global government is about centralization. Global government is a centralized institutional system that possesses the power use of force like a well established sovereign nation state.

This concept strips states of their "standing as centers of power and policy, where issues of war and peace are concerned," [19] and superimposing on them "an institution possessed of the authority and capability to maintain, by unchallengeable force so far as may be necessary, the order and stability of a global community. Organski lists five basic assumptions underlying the theory of collective security: [21]. Morgenthau states that three prerequisites must be met for collective security to successfully prevent war:.

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After World War I, the first large-scale attempt to provide collective security in modern times was the establishment of the League of Nations in and The provisions of the League of Nations Covenant represented a weak system for decision-making and for collective action. According to Palmer and Perking, they pointed failure of United States in joining League of Nations and the rise of the Soviet Union outside the League as one of major reasons why it was failed under enforcement of collective security [22].

Moreover, an example of the failure of the League of Nations' collective security is the Manchurian Crisis , when Japan occupied part of China which was a League member.

After the invasion, members of the League passed a resolution calling for Japan to withdraw or face severe penalties. However, along with the establishment of diplomatic relations between the ROK and the Soviet Union in September and the improvement in China-ROK relations centering on trade, moves toward the easing of tensions between the two Koreas have been discerned. These include the first meeting in September of the Prime Ministers of the two Koreas since their division and the simultaneous admission of the two Koreas to the United Nations in September Nevertheless, North Korea is still diplomatically isolated from the world and it is being forced to change its foreign policy to cope with realities in the international community.

Collective security

North Korea, therefore, has begun to take a positive posture, as shown by the fact that negotiations on the normalization of diplomatic relations between Japan and North Korea have started and that North Korea has begun to seek improvement in its relations with the United States, the Philippines and other Asian nations. On the other hand, the world entertains strong doubts and apprehensions regarding the possible development of nuclear weapons by North Korea. It is important for Japan, which is pursuing the normalization of diplomatic relations with North Korea, that North Korea's faithful implementation of the obligations based on the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty NPT that North Korea signed is confirmed.

In addition to this, if North Korea is indeed engaged in the development of nuclear weapons, it is a serious problem not only for Japan's security but also for the security of the Asia-Pacific region as a whole.


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It is also a grave defiance to the nuclear non-proliferation system. It is important for Japan, in cooperation with other nations, to urge the North Korean authorities to take responsible action. As for Cambodia, which is another area of conflict in the Asia-Pacific region, owing to Prince Sihanouk's leadership and efforts made by the co-chairing countries of the Paris Conference and other countries concerned, a considerable improvement was seen toward the realization of peace by the end of August This is shown by the fact that the Supreme National Council SNC started to function as the forum of dialogue among the Cambodians and that an agreement has been reached among various factions to reduce armed forces.

Consequently, in order to realize just and ultimate peace by securing an appropriate intervention by the United Nations, a Paris Conference is expected to be held during the course of for final adjustments.

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On the other hand, a new development has been observed in this dispute. A non-official seminar on the issue was held in August at the proposal of the Indonesian Government, with the participation of the above countries and regions concerned. From a viewpoint of ensuring stability of the region, future developments are to be carefully observed. Furthermore, the trend of the Indian naval forces have in recent years drawn the attention of neighboring countries and others. The Indian Ocean being an important sealane linking Japan with oil-producing countries in the Middle East, Japan should continue to pay attention to its strategic environment.

Japan's security policy consists of three pillars - U. The Japan-U. Despite the recent changes in the international situation, the importance of the Japan-U.

First, the Japan-U. Security Treaty gives a stable political basis for the close alliance and cooperative relations between the two countries. Second, close cooperative relations between the two countries symbolized by the Japan-U. At the same time, the security arrangements give international credibility to Japan's policy of not becoming a major military power capable of threatening other nations.

Third, the difference in military capabilities between Japan, which firmly adheres to three non-nuclear principles, and the Soviet Union, which possess nuclear weapons, is starkly evident. In order to maintain peace and stability of Japan, therefore, the U. Security Treaty is necessary. In order to maintain the Japan-U.

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It must be pointed out, however, that while Japan greatly relies upon the United States in the military sphere, the United States is faced with economic difficulties. In consideration of Japan's huge surplus against the United States in the current balance of payments, in addition to the situations mentioned above, it is necessary to reinforce Japan's cooperation with the United States in order to enhance the credibility of the Japan-U. As part of this cooperation, Japan increased its host nation support for the U. In order to maintain peace and security of Japan, it is vital for Japan to improve its defense capability together with maintaining the Japan-U.

Japan, under its Peace Constitution, has been developing moderate yet effective defense capability according to the basic principle of maintaining an exclusively defense-oriented policy and of not becoming a military power capable of threatening other nations. Currently, in accordance with the "Mid-term Defense Program" from to , and in consideration of recent changes in the international situation, efforts are being made to set up a moderate yet effective defense capability along with the basic thinking of the "National Defense Program Outline" of , in respect of the maintenance of the level of defense capability stated in the outline.

It is a fact that some Asian countries are concerned that Japan might become a military power. Thus, it is important for Japan to explain its defense policy, including the exclusively defensive posture, at every opportunity available. In light of ensuring long-term stability in the Asia-Pacific region, it is very important from the perspective of Japan's security to make further efforts in foreign affairs aiming at solving such pending issues as stability on the Korean Peninsula and peace in Cambodia and promoting further economic development in the countries in this region. From a more global perspective, Japan's cooperation, within the range of the Constitution, in international efforts to keep peace, as shown in the Gulf Crisis, and in international efforts for arms control and disarmament contributes directly or indirectly to an improvement of the circumstances surrounding its own security.

Such cooperation is a foreign policy objective to which Japan should attach significance from the viewpoint of fulfilling its responsibility in the international community as well as from the perspective of Japan's security. In international politics concerning the security issues, there is a tendency to apply the European example to other regions. Such a tendency is strong particularly in the United States and Europe.

When considering peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region, it is important to consider the special features of this region in comparison with those of Europe.


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  5. Actually, the geopolitical conditions and the security environments in the Asia-Pacific region are different from those in Europe in many respects. First of all, in sharp contrast to postwar Europe, where the reduction of military tension, including the threat of nuclear war, was the major preoccupation, the policy priorities of countries in the Asia-Pacific region are directed toward economic development, due to the fact that most countries in the region are developing countries.

    Second, while in the European scene an East-West relationship in the form of bipolar confrontation between NATO and the Warsaw Treaty Organization had been dominant, the Asia-Pacific region contains a variety of factors, including the presence of China, which do not fall into a clear-cut East-West dichotomy, and the international political power relationship is multipolar. In addition, the alliances are mostly bilateral; the conflict of interests among nations is complex; their threat perceptions are diverse; all of which make the overall security configuration extremely complex.

    Third, in contrast to Europe where border issues and other postwar problem had been settled before the process of CSCE was initiated, in the Asia-Pacific region, there are still various unresolved disputes and conflicts, such as the North-South confrontation in the Korean Peninsula, the Cambodian conflict, and the Northern Territorial issue between Japan and the Soviet Union. Fourth, while there is in Europe a major trend toward unification both politically and economically, led by the movement of EC integration, the Asia-Pacific region is pursuing economic interdependence based upon political, social, and cultural diversity among nations and areas and their differences in stages of economic development.